Contagious diseases, such as plague, syphilis, smallpox, cholera, and tuberculosis, ravaged the population of western Europe frequently over the centuries. Whereas the plague had already disap peared before the 19th century, the last outbreak of cholera in the Netherlands was in 1866. Since hygiene has improved and methods of vaccination have been developed, the traditional infectious dis eases have been effectively controlled. See also HEALTH.

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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